Structure of Complex System Viva Questions

Structure of Complex System Viva Questions

Structure of Complex System Viva Questions, Short questions on Structure of Complex System, Engineering Viva Questions, Viva Questions on Structure of Complex System, System Engineering Viva Questions

Short Questions with Answers

Q.1. Discuss the system building blocks and interfaces.

Ans. The need for a systems engineer to attain a wide knowledge of the several interacting disciplines involved such as engineering and management in the development of a complex system. A system can become more complex due to an increase in size as well as with an increase in the amount of data.

Q.2. Describe the hierarchy of complex systems.

Ans. A complex system may be represented by a hierarchical structure in that they are composed of the subsystem, components, sub-components, and parts.

The domain of the system engineer extends down through the component level and extends across several categories. In contrast, the domain of the design specialist extends from the part level up through the component level, but typically within a single technology area or discipline.

Q.3. What do you understand by the system building block of system engineering?

Ans. System building blocks are at the level of components and are the basic building blocks of all engineering systems characterized by both functional and physical attributes. These building blocks are characterized by performing a distinct and significant function and are singular – they are within the scope of a single engineering discipline.

Functional elements are functional equivalents of components and are categorized into four classes by operating medium:

  1. Signal elements, which sense and communicate information.
  2. Data elements, which interpret, organize, and manipulate information.
  3. Material elements, which provide structure and process material.
  4. Energy elements, which provide energy or power.

Components are the physical embodiment of functional elements, which are categorized into six classes by materials of construction.

  1. Electronic.
  2. Electromechanical.
  3. Mechanical.
  4. Electro-.optical.
  5. Thermomechanical.
  6. Software.

System building blocks models can be useful in identifying actions capable of achieving operational outcomes, facilitating functional partitioning and definition, identifying subsystem and component interfaces, and visualizing the physical architecture of the system.

Q.4. Define the term the systems environment.

Ans. The system environment, i.e., everything outside the system that interacts with it, includes

  1. System operators (part of system function but outside the delivered systems).
  2. Maintenance, housing, and support systems.
  3. Shipping, storage and handling.
  4. Weather and other physical environments.
  5. Threats

Q.5. Discuss the terms interfaces and interactions.

Ans. Interfaces are a critical systems engineering concern, which affect interactions between components and can be classified into three categories:

  1. Connect interactions
  2. Isolate interactions
  3. Convert interactions   

They require identification, specification, coordination, and control. Moreover, test interfaces typically are provided for integration and maintenance.

Interactions between two individual elements of the system are affected through the interface connecting. An important and sometimes less than adequately addressed external system interaction occurs during system maintenance.

Q.6. What do you understand by complexity in modern systems?

Ans. When systems are integrated together to perform a function or exhibit a capability, that is greater than anyone system. Each system is always part of a larger entity. At times, this larger entity can be classified as a separate system in itself. These situations are referred to as SoSs. They tend to exhibit seven distinct characteristics:

  1. Operational independence of the individual system.
  2. Managerial independence of the individual system.
  3. Geographic distribution.
  4. Emergent behaviour.
  5. Evolutionary development.
  6. Self-organization.
  7. Adaptation.

Enterprise systems engineering is similar in complexity but focuses on an organizational entity. Since an enterprise involves social systems as well as technical systems, the complexity tends to become unpredictable.

Q.7. Describe the applications of system building blocks.

Ans. The following are the application of system building blocks:

  1. The functional elements into four classes of signals, data, material and energy element can help to achieve required desire goal.
  2. Identifying the classes of functions that need to be performed by the system may help the appropriate functional elements into subsystems.
  3. Identifying the individual functional building blocks may help define the nature of the interfaces within and between sub-systems.
  4. The interrelation between the functional elements and the corresponding one or more physical implementations can help visualize the physical architecture of the system.

Q.8. What do you understand about the structure of complex systems?

Ans. Complexity incorporates not only engineering systems but also the logical human organization of data. At the same time, a system can become more complex due to an increase in size as well as with an increase in the amount of data, variables, or the number of fields, subfields that are involved in the design. Systems engineering encourages the use of tools and methods to better comprehend and manage complexity in systems.

Q.9. Discuss the types of physical environmental interactions.


(a) System operators. All systems, including automated systems, do not operate autonomously but are controlled to some degree by human operators in performing their functions.

(b) Operational maintenance. The requirements for system readiness and operational reliability relate directly to the manner in which it is to be maintained during its operating life.

(c) Support system. Support systems of the physical environment are that part of the infrastructure on which the system depends for carrying out its mission.

(d) System housing. Most stationary systems are installed in an operating site, which itself imposes compatibility constraints on the system.

(e) Shipping and handling environment. Many systems require transport from the manufacturing site to the operating site, which imposes special conditions for which the system must be designed.

(j) Threats. The threats of external entities can be natural or man-made.

Q.10. Discuss enterprise systems engineering.

Ans. An enterprise includes human or social systems that must be integrated with physical systems. An enterprise is anything that consists of people, processes, technology, systems, and other resources across organizations and locations interacting with each other and their environment to achieve a common goal.

System Engineering Viva Questions

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